“FATHER” SYMPHONY JOSEPH HAYDN
This composer worked with the hope that his works will help people become at least a little happier and serve as a source of vivacity and inspiration. With such thoughts, he embarked on his favorite pastime. Joseph Haydn became the “father” of the symphony, the discoverer of other musical genres, he first wrote secular oratorios in German, and his masses became the pinnacle of the Vienna classical school.
The son of a carriage master
Joseph Haydn was awarded many honorary titles, became a member of music academies and societies, and the fame that came to him was well-deserved. No one could have imagined that the son of a horse carriage master from Austria would achieve such honors. Joseph Haydn was born on March 31, 1732 in the small Austrian village of Rorau. His father did not have any musical education, but independently mastered playing the harp, the composer Joseph Haydnk was not indifferent to music, and the mother of the future composer. From early childhood, parents found in Joseph good vocal abilities and hearing. Already at the age of five, he loudly sang along with his father, and then learned to play the violin and clavier and came to the church choir to perform masses.
The far-sighted father sent the young Joseph to a neighboring town to a relative, Johann Mathias Frank, the rector of the school. He taught children not only grammar and mathematics, but also gave them lessons in singing and playing the violin. There, Haydn mastered string and wind instruments and learned to play the timpani, preserving his gratitude to his teacher for life.
Hard work, persistence and natural beautiful treble made young Joseph famous in the city. Once, the Viennese composer Georg von Reiter came there to select young singers for his chapel. Joseph Haydn impressed him and at the age of 8 fell into the choir of Vienna’s largest cathedral. For eight years, young Haydn comprehended the mastery of singing, the subtleties of composition and even tried to compose spiritual works for several voices.
The most difficult period for Haydn began in 1749, when he had to earn a living with lessons, sing in various church choirs, accompany the composer Josef Haydnpevtsev and play in ensembles. At the same time, the young man never lost heart or lost his desire to comprehend everything new. He took lessons from the composer Nicolo Porpora, and paid him by accompanying his young students. Haydn studied books on composition and assorted clavier sonatas, until late at night, he zealously composed music of various genres. And in 1951, in one of the suburban theaters in Vienna, Haydn’s singspiel was staged under the name Lame Imp. In 1755, he had his first string quartet, and four years later – the first symphony. These genres in the future will become the most important in the entire work of the composer.
The Strange Alliance of Joseph Haydn
The fame acquired in Vienna helped the young musician get a job with Count Morzine. It was for his chapel that Joseph Haydn wrote the first five symphonies. By the way, for the incomplete two years of work with Morzin, the composer managed to bind himself in marriage. Composer Joseph Haydn, 28-year-old Joseph, had tender feelings for the youngest daughter of the court hairdresser, and she unexpectedly left for the monastery. Then Haydn, either in revenge, or out of some other considerations, married her sister Maria Keller, who was 4 years older than Joseph. Their family union did not become happy. The composer’s wife was grumpy and wasteful, she did not at all value her husband’s talent, folded his manuscripts into papillots or used them instead of baking paper. But, surprisingly, their family life in the absence of love, desired children and home comfort lasted about 40 years.
In the service of the prince
The turning point in the creative life of Joseph Haydn was 1761, when he signed a work contract with Prince Paul Esztergazi. For 30 long years, the composer served as the court bandmaster of the aristocratic family. The prince and relatives lived in Vienna only in winter, and brought the rest of the time in his residence in the town of Eisenstadt or in the estate in Esztergazi. Therefore, Joseph had to leave the capital for 6 years. Composer Franz Haydn When Prince Paul died, his brother Nikolaus expanded the chapel to 16 people. There were two theaters in the family estate: one intended for operas and dramas, and the second for puppet shows.
Of course, Haydn’s position was highly dependent, but for that time it was considered completely natural. The composer appreciated his now comfortable life and always remembered his youthful years of need. Sometimes he was gripped by a spleen and a desire to throw off these bonds. Under the contract, Joseph Haydn was obliged to compose the works that the prince desired. The composer had no right to show them to anyone, make copies or write for someone else. He had to be with Esterhazy all the time. Because of this, Joseph Haydn never managed to visit the homeland of classical music in Italy.